Generally, the lyric expression appears in the form of poems, but it can also take the shape of texts in prose.
Additionally, species have also changes in time. In each period, each genre was represented by certain species that lasted for a while, and then were replaced by others. Epic works, for example, like heroic poems, were specific for the Middle Ages, but afterwards they disappeared. In the tables accompanying this work you can see some of these species or forms, and the way they have evolved throughout history; with the aid of these forms, we will analyze the evolution of Spanish literature from its origins to the nineteenth century.
Traditionally, there are also other fields that have been considered to be literary genres: Rhetoric, Didactics, History and, more recently, Essayism and Journalism. The concept of literary style is characteristic for these, too, and they often use language in a way similar to a literary work, although the main purpose of the text is different. Generally, Rhetoric is the art of persuasion of the listener through the use of language. Didactics has the purpose to convey information or knowledge. History narrates real events of the past. The Essay is a way of presenting an author’s thoughts over a certain issue in a free manner. Finally, Journalism reflects actual news, events that happen in the present.
- Ode: Lyric poem that expresses an intense feeling of the poet, using a highly praising tone.
- Elegy: A poem in which the poet expresses his saddest feelings due to a tragic event, usually the death of a beloved person.
- Eclogue: Bucolic or pastoral poem in which nature and love are idealized.
- Satire: Poem or prose that censures or ridicules human or social behavior.
- Epigram: Short poem used for inscriptions or epitaphs, that can also have humoristic or satirical intention and meaning.
- Epithalamium: Poem in which a wedding is described and celebrated.
- Hymn: Poetic composition that praises a character or a historical event of particular importance, using a tone of high grandeur.
- Anacreontic: Poem that praises sensual pleasure, love and wine.
- Epistle: Letter in the form of a poem, that illustrates moral and doctrinal ideas.