These devices are related to the special use of words and the change in their meaning.
- Rhetorical questions: These are questions that don’t require an answer because they actually are strong affirmative or negative statements. “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” Percy Bysshe Shelley.
- Apostrophe: An exclamatory statement addressed to a person, or a personified animal or object. "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?" Saint Paul of Tarsus
- Antithesis: The opposition or contract between two ideas or words, arranged in a symmetrical pattern: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness…” (Charles Dickens)
- Paradox: The connection of two contrasting ideas: “Child is father of the man.” (William Wordsworth)
- Personification: The attribution of human actions or features to non-human beings or objects. “There was never a sound beside the wood but one / And that was my long scythe whispering to the ground.” William Blake
- Hyperbole: Deliberate exaggeration of certain characteristics in a description. “I was quaking from head to foot, and could have hung my hat on my eyes, they stuck out so far." (Mark Twain)
- Comparison or simile: The linking of meanings between two different objects, using a conjunction (like, as, looking like etc.) “Elderly American ladies leaning on their canes listed toward me like towers of Pisa.” Vladimir Nabokov
- Metaphor: The connection between a real concept and an abstract one with which it is compared indirectly. “All the world’s a stage and men and women merely players…” William Shakespeare