Monday, February 22, 2016

DEVICES USED AT MORPHO-SYNTACTIC LEVEL


These devices operate at the level of the entire sentence and relates to the function of the words within it.
-                             Anaphora: The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of each line or sentence: What the hammer? what the chain? / In what furnace was thy brain? / What the anvil? what dread grasp / Dare its deadly terrors clasp?” William Blake.
-                             Epiphora: The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of each line or sentence: “I am wearing a pair of shoes. / They are ugly shoes. / Uncomfortable shoes. / I hate my shoes.” Author Unknown
-                             Morphological anaphora: Sentences or lines ending in the same part of speech, usually past participles or gerunds. “12 Drummers Drumming / Eleven Pipers Piping / Ten Lords a Leaping / Nine Ladies Dancing / Eight Maids a Milking / Seven Swans a Swimming / Six Geese a Laying” (Twelve Days of Christmas)
-                             Concatenation: The linking of sentences by repeating certain words. “And so, as the saying is, cat to rat, rat to rope, rope to stick, the carrier pounded Sancho, Sancho the lass, she him, and the innkeeper her, and all worked away so briskly that they did not give themselves a moment's rest.” Miguel de Cervantes
-                             Parallelism. The presence of similar syntactic structures (like phrases or sentences): A woman has poisoned my soul, / Another has poisoned my body. Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.
-                             Polysyndeton: The use of multiple conjunctions in an enumeration, which can be omitted without a change in meaning. “Let the whitefolks have their money and power and segregation and sarcasm and big houses and schools and lawns like carpets, and books, and mostly–mostly–let them have their whiteness.” Maya Angelou
-                             Asyndeton: The omission of the conjunction at the end of an enumeration, so that all the elements are separated by commas. “This is the villain among you who deceived you, who cheated you, who meant to betray you completely.” Aristotle
-                             Pleonasm. Repetition of the same idea using different words, meant to intensify expressively a certain sensation. “Let me tell you this, when social workers offer you, free, gratis and for nothing, something to hinder you from swooning, which with them is an obsession, it is useless to recoil.” Samuel Beckett
-                             Derivation. Expressive intensification through the use of multiple words from the same lexical family. I will bring you a blood-red rose with my bloody hands. Blas de Otero
-                             Dilogy. The use of a phrase or word with a double meaning. Speckled in her customs and her face, / She could look pretty amongst jasper gemstones… Francesco de Quevedo. Here, speckled means freckled, but also sinful.
-                             Ellipsis. Expressive intensification through the omission of certain words. The door, open. / The wine, soft. / Neither matter, nor spirit. Making / the ship to tilt a little. Dámaso Alonso
-                             Hyperbaton. The change of the logical order of the words in a sentence. There was in Toledo / by the King appointed, a governor / full of justice and bravery, / don Pedro Ruiz de Alarcón. José de Zorrilla.
-                             Periphrasis. The indirect and complicated formulation of an idea that could be expressed in a simple way. “I was within a hair’s-breadth of the last opportunity for pronouncement, and I found with humiliation that probably I would have nothing to say.” Oscar Wilde
-                             Syllabic pun. A play on words that involves using phrases formed with syllables from previous words. They keep them in the glassrooms, / Whole rooms made out of glass. (…) Tea-cher. The one who makes the tea. Roger McGough

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