Monday, February 8, 2016

DEVICES AT LEXICO-SEMANTIC LEVEL


-                             Synesthesia: The transfer of a meaning from a certain sense, to another sense. “With your deep ravines and your sour summits…” Antonio Machado
-                             Allegory: The global transformation of meaning, so that it expresses a general idea, through a procedure similar to metaphor: “To that unfathomed, boundless sea,/ The silent grave! / Thither all earthly pomp and boast / Roll, to be swallowed up and lost / In one dark wave. / Thither the mighty torrents stray, / Thither the brook pursues its way, / And tinkling rill,/ There all are equal; side by side / The poor man and the son of pride / Lie calm and still.” Jorge Manrique
-                             Synecdoche: The transformation of meaning by using a part meant to represent the whole, or the other way around. “His terrible whiskers flitted round me in silent criticism.” Joseph Conrad (the whickers refer to the man’s whole face, or even his entire body or person). “The petticoat at home, and on the streets, / and in the fields, the pants.” B. Pérez Galdós (that is to say, the woman stays at home, while the man goes on the street, or works in the field).
-                             Metonymy: The transformation of meaning by using an imaginary concept as a substitute for the real one, when there is a strong connection in meaning between the two. “You have no heart.” (In this example, the word “heart” is used instead of “feelings”.)

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